Dicas Economia

Sistema Monetário de Bretton Woods (1944 – 1971) explicado em um minuto

O Sistema Monetário de Bretton Woods (1944 – 1971)

Um Novo Sistema Financeiro Após a Segunda Guerra Mundial

Após a Segunda Guerra Mundial, a necessidade de um novo sistema financeiro tornou-se evidente. O padrão ouro era considerado muito rígido, mas os economistas estavam preocupados que os países desvalorizassem sua moeda para impulsionar as exportações. 44 países enviaram delegados para a conferência realizada em Bretton Woods, New Hampshire, a partir de 1º de julho de 1944.

A Influência dos Estados Unidos

Os Estados Unidos detinham dois terços das reservas de ouro do mundo após a guerra, tornando-se o jogador mais influente. Todas as moedas acabaram sendo vinculadas ao dólar, que por sua vez estava vinculado ao ouro. No entanto, surgiu uma preocupação crucial: como um país poderia sair de uma crise econômica sem desvalorizar sua moeda?

Criação das Instituições

Para abordar essa questão, foram criadas duas instituições. O Fundo Monetário Internacional foi estabelecido para emprestar dinheiro a países em dificuldades, incapazes de atrair financiamento de outras fontes. Além disso, o Banco Internacional para Reconstrução e Desenvolvimento, conhecido hoje como Banco Mundial, foi criado para ajudar os países menos desenvolvidos.

O Declínio do Sistema de Bretton Woods

Apesar de suas premissas, o sistema de Bretton Woods não sobreviveu. Os EUA continuaram tendo déficits para financiar vários projetos, o que resultou no aumento da quantidade de dólares em circulação, enquanto as reservas de ouro diminuíam devido à demanda de outros países.

O Anúncio de Nixon

Em 15 de agosto de 1971, o presidente dos EUA, Richard Nixon, anunciou oficialmente que os dólares não seriam mais convertíveis em ouro, levando ao fim do sistema de Bretton Woods.


O Sistema Monetário de Bretton Woods foi um marco na história financeira global, mas acabou por ceder às pressões econômicas. Suas instituições ainda desempenham um papel fundamental na economia mundial atual.


O que levou ao fim do Sistema de Bretton Woods?

O principal motivo foi o aumento dos déficits dos Estados Unidos para financiar vários projetos, levando à diminuição das reservas de ouro em relação à quantidade de dólares em circulação.

Quais foram as instituições criadas durante o Sistema de Bretton Woods?

Foram criadas o Fundo Monetário Internacional, destinado a emprestar dinheiro a países em dificuldades, e o Banco Internacional para Reconstrução e Desenvolvimento, hoje conhecido como Banco Mundial, para ajudar os países menos desenvolvidos.


Artigos relacionados

37 Comentários

  1. Mistake 1.It was not after WW2 .
    Currency stabilization 1940.
    So that "bad news " or disaster economics"should not be allowed on events such as the sinking of HMS Hood, Omaha beach, Bastogne etc
    (Often the more dead the bigger the profits on currency falls for the many bonanza for the vvvvvfew)

  2. Gold was the governor for the printing of the dollar. Now they can print us into bankruptcy. Leaving the debt for your children and grandchildren. It's like the player in the game Monopoly, in control of the bank prints more money and keeps it for themselves. They can't lose, and you can never win! Fake money is what this is. The dollar shouldn't have to be backed by just gold though. It could be silver, copper, jewel's! Something, but not Nothing! Nothing is dangerous.

  3. The imagery video makes it seem that there were people other than white people who had anything to do with the system created and thereby prevents visualizing the audacity of the idea that one people somehow could & should determine the financial system that EVERYONE is supposedly “freely” embracing.

  4. gold standards seems was safety check to keep finite material world '' finite '' if human body has designed for finite existence dust to dust . if all things are finite then what is infinite ?

  5. You forgot a major component of the model. Our military insured free trade under that agreement. For centuries countries colonized Africa etc to maintain their supply chains. We gave the world, at our expense, a system of trading freely, which had not existed for all millennia. That system brought millions of people out of poverty over the decades since the agreement. That agreement came to an end when the Soviet union fell in 1991. For all the people who complain about the United States and its "atrocities", let them watch to see what the world evolves into now. Look at China with 1.4 billion people today, and they will have 700 million in 30 years. How's that gonna work out? Let that filter a little bit. Those atrocities were carried out by "individuals". I.e. the military industrial complex. They were not carried out on behalf of the American people. The American flag was used for their own purpose.

  6. It all boils down to the US being financially an untrustworthy, unreliable and incompetent custodian of its own money and other countries’ money.

    In 1971, the American artifice of instead coercing and manipulating Saudi Arabia to use oil to back the value of the US dollar when the US ran out of its gold reserves, the so called Bretton Woods system, was sick and dishonest. It was a mafia like slime ball deal, an arrangement that should not have happened.

    The US simply hoodwinked the world and said trust us for we are rich, powerful and financially competent.

    No they are not. The US has relied on empty trust in its Ponzi scheme economy, printing money because it can, selling its debt in bonds which it has no intention to repay, constantly lifting its national debt ceiling to over 31 trillion dollars to maintain its vital functions and making money through creating conflict for its enemies and economic coercion for its allies selling and recycling outdated weapons and arms.

    The US has been treating the world’s countries as fools and useful idiots for decades too long. The US dollar is now thoroughly backed by the value of manufactured dishonesty, artificial promise and the illusion it is still the greatest most powerful nation on earth with the biggest economy you can ever have. This is just sorcery of the mind to control, a convenient mistruth promoted by Western media to keep things running artificially and an illusion for developing smaller and weaker countries to wake up from.

    No one should blindly trust the US dollar and what it stands for anymore.

    None of the US dollars basis for being the preeminent world reserve currency is based on right, fair, commonsense practices but on the willingness of the rest of the world to play along with an elaborate ruse! What suckers others have been!

    So shame on the US but double the shame on the rest of the world’s nations for gullibly and idiotically become willing participants in economic exploitation by the crafty carnivorous USA who has been dining on them for so long!

    Wake up! Wake up! Wake up!

  7. The true reason this was created was to make all nations subservient to the United States global agenda. NS Germany's currency was not backed by gold and there was no "interest" or "debt". Germany HAD to be destroyed.

  8. If you liked this video, I think you'll love The Age of Anomaly, my Wall Street Journal and USA Today best-selling book about preparing for financial calamities (whatever they may involve). You can buy it over at:

    1) Amazon: https://www.amazon.com/Reasonable-Case-Bitcoin-Andrei-Polgar-ebook/dp/B09G6Z45QB
    2) Barnes & Noble: https://www.barnesandnoble.com/w/the-age-of-anomaly-andrei-polgar/1127084693?ean=2940155383970
    3) Apple Books: https://books.apple.com/us/book/the-age-of-anomaly-spotting-financial-storms-in/id1331704265
    4) Kobo: https://www.kobo.com/ww/en/ebook/the-age-of-anomaly-spotting-financial-storms-in-a-sea-of-uncertainty

  9. GiganticWebsites.com is a project through which I make it possible for people to build truly gigantic websites (thousands of articles each!) at ridiculously low prices. If you have a great domain you want to turn into an amazing website or an existing site you'd like to upgrade/scale, visit our website or check out the One Minute Economics presentation video below:


    Please note that this comment is not an ad for a third-party service provider. GiganticWebsites.com is my baby 100% and I will personally be involved in each and every project so as to ensure the website turns out great 🙂

Deixe um comentário

O seu endereço de e-mail não será publicado. Campos obrigatórios são marcados com *

Botão Voltar ao topo